Offshore sea campaigns
Offshore campaigns are important sources of data production at the national and international levels in many areas of scientific research and observation: marine geoscience, physical and biological oceanography, ocean biogeochemistry, marine biodiversity, etc. The offshore campaigns can also meet monitoring or expertise needs, and can cover fields other than oceanography such as hydrography, the study of marine weather hazards, the study of volcanic or seismic events, the assessment of fish stocks, etc.
Since 1909, the date of the first recorded campaign for the French Ocean Fleet (FOF) on board of the Thor, more than 8500 oceanographic campaigns have been recorded for a wide variety of missions: underwater images acquisition, technological and acoustic tests, transit, sea trial campaigns, laying-and retrieving anchorages, data acquisition, etc.
The offshore campaigns presented below are therefore those dedicated to oceanography and whose data contribute to the Odatis Ocean cluster.
|ACTION||By combining physical and biochemical models, the ACTION campaigns have made it possible to quantify seasonal and interannual variations in CO2 flows across the ocean-atmosphere interface in the Mediterranean.|
|ADRIA||The main purpose of the ADRIA campaign was to deploy an anchor in the Adriatic Sea to observe the formation of deep waters in winter.|
|AEROTRACE||The AEROTRACE campaign aims to characterize marine biogenic emissions in the Indian Ocean in relation to atmospheric monitoring at both the Crozet and Amsterdam monitoring stations.|
|ALIOPEE||ALIOPEE is a campaign whose aim was to study the modification of the Cromwell Current structure between the central and western Pacific and the deep currents under it, but also to study the equatorial upwelling located nearby.|
|ALIZE||ALIZE is a climate oceanography campaign part of an action of the "World climate research program" supported by France. The main objective of this campaign is to clarify existing mechanisms at the ocean-atmosphere interface and to study the interannual variability of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The aim was to provide an "instant" view of the physical, chemical and biological conditions in the area of interest.|
|ALMOFRONT||The ALFMOFRONT campaigns aim to improve knowledge of main and secondary circulation by assessing the flows of matter and elements (mainly carbon and nitrogen) in the frontal zone and within adjacent areas between the surface and the deep layers.|
|AMANDES||Focusing off the Amazonian estuaries, the AMANDES campaigns aim to improve knowledge of the material flows, chemical elements and tracers that can be transported from the continent to the ocean.|
|AMOP||The AMOP campaign aims to better understand the mechanisms that govern minimum oxygen zones (MOZs) and ocean deoxygenation processes, with a particular focus on the area of lower oxygen concentration off Peru. See the news of January 2018, Oxygen return to the depths, on the results of this campaign.|
|ANGOLA||The ANGOLA project brings together a series of campaigns to study both the influence of the depth and structure of the thermocline on the fertility of tropical waters.|
|ANTARES||The general objective of the ANTARES campaigns is to study biogeochemical cycles in the Indian Southern Ocean.|
|ARCANE||The ARCANE campaigns aim to improve the understanding of ocean circulation at mid-latitudes of the northeast Atlantic by studying the dynamics of the western slope current dynamics, the general circulation and dispersion of Mediterranean water in the northeast Atlantic.|
|ARGAU||The ARGAU campaigns aim to study the long-term variability of the Southwestern and Southern Atlantic Ocean by estimating the spatial and temporal variability of surface water pCO2 distribution, and by evaluating the role of dynamic processes on the distribution of different phytoplankton species.|
|ASPEX||The ASPEX campaigns aim to study the processes governing the physical properties of water bodies along the French Atlantic margins. Based on a network of currentometric anchorages set up for two consecutive years, the objective is to understand these processes according to different time scales ranging from tidal to interannual.|
|ATMARA||By highlighting the circulation of water bodies via radiotracers, the main aim of the ATMARA campaign is to identify the origins of waters entering the Channel and to estimate the balance and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides.|
|BARMED||The main objective of the BARMED campaigns is to establish the kinetics of barite formation in the water column and dissolution/precipitation in the benthic layers.|
|BIOPRHOFI||A multidisciplinary campaign on the impact of the Rhône in the Gulf of Lion, the BIOPRHOFI campaign focuses on the study of desalinated structures that influence marine biological development. The aim is to improve the understanding of biogeochemical processes in structures that dilute and influence solar radiation.|
|BIOSOPE||The main objective of the BIOSOPE campaign is to study the variability of the biological, biogeochemical and bio-optical properties of several characteristic areas: the eutrophic zone of the South Pacific associated with the Chilean coastal upwelling regime; the mesotrophic zone of the Marquesas Islands plume; the oligotrophic zone present in the centre of the South Pacific gyre.|
|BONUS GOODHOPE||The BONUS-GOODHOPE project campaigns aim to contribute to a general understanding of the interactions between ocean dynamics, atmosphere, biogeochemistry and geochemistry of the Southern Ocean in the Atlantic sector, particularly in the Indo-Atlantic exchange areas and the South African continental margin.|
|BORD EST||The EAST BORD campaigns aim to determine ocean conditions at the eastern limits of the North Atlantic Basin in order to model the general circulation of this area.|
|BOUM||The BOUM campaign's objective is to obtain a better representation of the existing interactions between planktonic organisms and biogenic element cycles at different scales.|
|BOUSSOLE||BOUSSOLE marine biogeochemistry campaign, aims to provide time series of the optical properties of ocean waters, in order to provide support in the field of bio-optical research but also in the calibration and validation of satellite observations.|
|BSH||BSH campaigns are biogeochemical campaigns conducted in the North Sea that focus on the study of marine physico-chemical parameters such as nutrients, organic and inorganic compounds, temperature, salinity, etc.|
|CAMBIOS||Thanks to the implementation of currentometry-tomography anchorages, the CAMBIOS campaigns aim to study the variability of ocean circulation in the Canary Islands basin.|
|CAPIROISE||CAPIROISE is a campaign that aims to improve knowledge of the marine environment. The main objectives are: to deepen knowledge of the Atlantic, to use campaign results for meteorological and topographical work and to study ocean variability.|
|CAPREA, NOPREA, SUPREA||The CAPREA, NOPREA and SUPREA campaigns are campaigns to study the circulation and productivity of equatorial waters by observing equatorial upwelling and planktonic production.|
|CARABINFLOW||CARABINFLOW is a campaign to study the inflows into the water bodies located in the southern hemisphere of the Caribbean Basin.|
|CARIOCA||Campaign to deploy two CARIOCA buoys to quantify atmosphere-ocean exchanges by measuring pCO2.|
|CASCADE||Through qualitative and quantitative estimation of particulate and dissolved matter flows, the CASCADE campaign aims to determine the physical process characteristics that influence the redistribution of chemical elements in sediments and the structure and functioning of benthic and pelagic ecosystems.|
|CASSIOPEE||In the CASSIOPEE campaign, the main objective was to provide synoptic observations of ocean circulation over the entire water column in the southwestern area of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. The aim was to describe the structure of deep currents and to understand the hydrological and biogeochemical properties of the water bodies they carry.|
|CATCH||CATCH campaign objective is to study the existing energy exchanges and transport between the ocean and the atmosphere of the North Atlantic drift in winter conditions.|
|CHLOMAX||The CHLOMAX campaign aims to improve knowledge of the composition and functioning of algae that inhabit the deepest reaches of the oligotrophic seas by analysing the composition and structure of phytoplankton communities.|
|CINECA||Articulated around two axes: to achieve an accurate representation of the upwellings' hydrobiological structure and to study the laws of population development observed according to the physico-chemical parameters of the environment, the CINECA campaigns aim to study the mechanisms that govern the functioning of upwellings.|
|CIPREA||CIPREA campaigns study the role of physical mechanisms in zonal variations in primary production by observing short-term temporal variations and currents.|
|CIRENE||The CIRENE campaign aims essentially to better understand the intra-seasonal ocean-atmosphere coupling and to explain the mechanisms of surface temperature variability and the possible influence of this variability on the atmospheric column.|
|CITHER||Through the analysis of water body hydrological structure, the CITHER campaigns aim to determine the average ocean circulation of the Atlantic equatorial belt.|
|CIVA||The CIVA campaigns aim to study the zonal circulation of the Atlantic through different objectives: flow estimation, study of the general dynamics of the Antarctic system, study of the Weddel gyre and CO2 exchange at the ocean/atmosphere interface.|
|COARE||The COARE campaigns study the spatio-temporal variability of hydrological and currentometric structures in the Coral Sea, and the spatio-temporal variability of these structures, in relation to the "El Nino" and "Southern Oscillation" phenomena.|
|COBLAMED||COBLAMED is a study campaign aimed at understanding the evolution of the thermal and dynamic structure on either side of the thermocline under the effect of meteorological conditions.|
|CONFLUENCE||The CONFLUENCE programme is interested in the study of the South Atlantic at the level of the convergence of the Falklands and Brazilian currents by acquiring time series of current measurements.|
|CONVHIV||The CONVHIV campaigns aim to study deep convection and associated circulation in the Gulf of Lions in winter.|
|CORICA||CORICA campaigns to study ocean circulation are mainly concerned with thermohaline circulation, the North Atlantic oscillation and climate variability.|
|CPB MANCHE||The CPB campaigns in the Channel aimed to study benthos/pelagos coupling by comparing existing homogeneous and stratified hydrological systems.|
|CYBELLE||The CYBELLE campaign aims to improve knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms needed to establish models of coastal zone behaviour and their impact on the offshore area.|
|DANAIDES||The DANAIDES campaigns aimed to clarify the nature of hydroclimatic conditions in the tropical South Pacific during the southern summer.|
|DEWEX MerMex||As part of the MERMEX project, the DeWEX campaign aims to study the annual hydrological and biogeochemical cycles of the Mediterranean in order to understand the changes that can impact marine ecosystems. The main aim is to study the role of deep water formation in the chemical composition of matter in the Mediterranean basin.|
|DIAPAZON||Through the study of nitrogen and phytoplacton flows, the objective of the DIAPAZON campaign is to understand the processes that cause significant blooms in the oligotrophic region of the southwest Pacific.|
|DYFAMED||DYFAMED is a set of campaigns with multiple objectives: to study seasonal and interannual physical, chemical and biological variability; to study the relationships between biological and chemical processes in response to physical forcings and to estimate the variability of vertical flows in the water column; biogeochemical processes in the surface layer and inputs of matter from the continent through the atmosphere.|
|DYNAPROC||The general objective of the DYNAPROC campaigns is to study the physical, chemical and biological processes that control the vertical flow of particulate organic matter. During these campaigns, the main focus was on the control of primary production and the temporal variability of the vertical flow of organic matter and carbon.|
|DYOME||DYOME is a set of campaigns whose long-term currentometric measurements allow the study of general circulation and swirling structures highlighted by satellite observations.|
|EBENE||The EBENE campaigns study the processes of limiting planktonic primary production in the Pacific equatorial enrichment zone through a general description of hydrology and pelagic production in the Central Pacific equatorial zone.|
|ECOMARGE||The ECOMARGE campaigns aim to define and quantify pelagic and advective flows in order to define the influence of material flows at the sedimentary interface in geo- and biogeochemical processes at meso-scale spatial and temporal scales.|
|EDYLOC||The EDYLOC project campaigns aim to evaluate the spatial and temporal scale of the dynamics variability of the deep layer dynamics in the Bay of Biscay's abyssal plain by measuring deep currents.|
|EGEE||The main objective of the EGEE campaigns is to study the existing variability within the upper layers of the Gulf of Guinea and is particularly interested in exchanges at the ocean-atmosphere interface, as well as sub-surface ocean circulation.|
|EGYPT||Study of eddies and gyres in the Mediterranean via the EGYPT observation and study campaigns to understand the circulation of water bodies|
|ELODYANE||The ELODYANE campaign is a current measurement campaign.|
|EOPEA||EOPEA campaigns are campaigns to study deep currents and their fluctuations in the medium and long term.|
|EURHOGLI||The EURHOGLI campaign provides a detailed hydrological and chemical description of water bodies in order to study the pelagic ecosystem of production and regeneration created by nutrient inputs.|
|ENVAR||The ENVAR campaigns aim to carry out several series of observations in order to study turbidity phenomena and ecological consequences along the Var Canyon through measurements of various environmental and biological parameters.|
|EPICEA||EPICEA campaigns are multidisciplinary campaigns aimed at better understanding the processes taking place within the international radioactive waste area located in the North-East Atlantic.|
|EPONITE||EPONITE is a campaign to study the zonal extension of the "nitrite pocket" in order to clarify the physico-chemical and biological mechanisms that govern the regeneration of nutrient salts.|
|EPOPE||As France's participation in the international study on the equatorial Pacific carried out as part of the Joint Global Flow Studies (JGOFS) international programme, the EPOPE campaign aimed to understand and predict the functioning of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system.|
|EQUALANT||EQUALANT campaigns aim to study surface and subsurface dynamic variability in the equatorial zone, by studying heat exchange at the ocean-atmosphere interface and by studying large-scale deep circulation.|
|ETAMBOT||The ETAMBOT campaigns aim to study circulation in the western equatorial Atlantic basin and take into account the strong seasonal variations known at the surface and suspected at depth. The main objective is to study the water bodies circulation based on the distribution of geochemical tracers and to evaluate the local circulation and its interactions with the large-scale thermohaline circulation.|
|EUMELI||EUMELI campaigns aim to study the flow of particles in the North Tropical Atlantic from their formation to their possible burial in sediment.|
|EXTASE||EXTASE is a set of campaigns that aim to study the general dynamics and recirculation processes of the Gulf stream.|
|FETCH||LThe FETCH campaign is a physical oceanography campaign whose objective is to study medium-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions by focusing on matter flows and observing sea states.|
|FLOSTRAL||Through the deployment of a network of PROVOR floats, the FLOSTRAL campaigns are aiming to better understand the mechanisms that are at the origin of modal water circulation and their development in the environment. Observations made during these campaigns allow us to quantify and monitor the recirculation of these waters over time in the Southern Indian Ocean.|
|FLOT||The FLOT campaign measures the thermal flow of the tropical Atlantic ocean in order to improve knowledge of the equatorial surface circulation and the thermal field of the ocean sphere.|
|FLUPAC||By studying the biogeochemical cycles of two different hydrological structures (with and without upwelling), the FLUPAC campaign aimed to identify and understand the mechanisms that control the carbon and biological flows in the ocean, in order to evaluate the exchanges of these elements with the atmosphere, sediments and continental shelves.|
|FLUXALANTE||The FLUXALANTE campaigns studied the transport of particulate- and dissolved matter in the water of Mediterranean origin in the North-East Atlantic by comparing two stations of similar depth (one on the continental shelf and one on the Armoricain dome).|
|FOCAL||The FOCAL campaigns studied the variability of the ocean thermal flows in the intertropical part of the Atlantic Ocean by estimating the seasonal and interannual variations in the thermal flows transported by the Atlantic current and counter-current system.|
|FOAM||At the CNES' request, the FOAM campaign made it possible to accurately map the marine geoid through the deployment of GNSS (satellite positioning and dating system) buoys in the Kerguelen.|
|FRONTAL||The FRONTAL campaigns focus on the fronts near France and aim to define physical, chemical and biological processes related to the meeting of two surface water bodies and to establish the balance of sources and sinks of various forms of energy and matter in order to compare it with the more global balance of a sea or an ocean.|
|GASPROD||The GASPROD campaigns are dedicated to the study of the hydrological, nutritive and planktonic structure of the Bay of Biscay under the influence of the Loire River. During these campaigns, it is also a question of evaluating the assimilation and regeneration flows of nutrients according to the salinity gradient from the Loire to the continental shelf.|
|GATE PHARE||Representing the French contribution to the international GATE (Garp Atlantic Tropical Experiment) experiment, the GATE PHARE campaign allows the study of existing exchanges at the ocean-atmosphere interface in tropical areas.|
|GEDYMAC||The GEDYMAC campaign aims to estimate radioactive marker flows in the Channel and Irish Sea for the identification and quantification of deposition areas, and assessment of transit times and mixing processes of water bodies and sediments.|
|GEDYNOR||The GEDYNOR campaign aims to improve knowledge of both the water bodies dynamics and sedimentary particles through the use of markers.|
|GEOBASE||The GEOBASE campaigns aim to determine the geometry, dynamics and internal structure of the subtidal sandy waves.|
|GEOMAR||The GEOMAR program's campaigns aim to understand ocean circulation by studying the transformation intensity of water bodies and their transport to deep currents.|
|GEOVIDE||The GEOVIDE campaigns are linked to the project of the same name, which is the French contribution to the international GEOTRACES programme in North Atlantic. This program aims to better understand water and thermal flows by studying both the export and circulation of deep water bodies. The objectives of the GEOVIDE campaign are therefore to better know and understand ocean chemistry by studying the distribution of trace elements and their isotopes.|
|GEP & CO||Based on observations at sea, GEP & Co campaigns should describe population variability in the phytoplankton to link it to physical forcing and assess its consequences on ocean biogeochemistry.|
|GINS||The GINS campaigns aim to identify the main components of the North Sea thermohaline circulation.|
|GOLF||GOLF groups together ecological study campaigns prior to the establishment of the tidal power plant in the Normandy-Breton Gulf. These campaigns have resulted in continuous measurements of hydrobiological parameters and the study of biosedimentary features.|
|GOLFE GUINEE||The GOLFE GUINEE cruise consisted of an in-depth study of the equatorial ocean circulation at the head of the Gulf of Guinea during the summer season in the absence of an equatorial divergence.|
|GORGONE||GORGONE includes a series of campaigns to study the hydrological conditions of the Coral Sea, as well as these exchanges with the Pacific Ocean to understand the formation of both the South Equatorial and South Tropical counter-current and the distribution of nutrient salts.|
|GRACE||Campaign to deploy deepwater tide gauges and recover physical oceanographic data to improve knowledge of the marine geoid.|
|GREEN EDGE||GREEN EDGE is a set of campaigns whose main objective is to understand the main processes (physical, chemical and biological) that are at the origin of phytoplankton spring blooms in the Arctic zone. It is mainly about understanding these phenomena, identifying the most significant phytoplankton species involved in these processes and determining how they react to past climate variations.|
|GUIDOME||The GUIDOME campaign studied the consequences of Guinea Dome's hydrological structure on planktonic production.|
|HARMATTAN||The objectives of the HARMATTAN campaigns are multiple: study the exchange of materials between the ocean and continents, study the relationships between suspended particles and pelagic sedimentation, improve knowledge of quaternary climate episodes and their impacts on ocean history, and finally study the contributions of extraterrestrial materials to the ocean.|
|HYDROLOGIE PECHE||The objective of the HYDROLOGIE PECHE campaigns is to obtain an overview of the thermal situation in both the Bay of Biscay and the Channel, in order to study the temperatures associated with that of plankton distribution and schools of pelagic fish.|
|HYDROTHON||The HYDROTHON campaigns meet the knowledge needs about the main water bodies and the currents that animate them, as well as the various aspects related to their productivity in the context of the tuna fishing development in New Caledonia.|
|ICHTYO||In order to carry out an inventory of existing animal biomasses in the southern Indian Ocean, the ICHTYO campaign aimed to study the primary productivity of the Western region of the Kerguelen Shelf.|
|INDIGO||The INDIGO campaigns investigate CO2 and water circulation in the western Indian Ocean by studying the dynamics of the upper water layers subjected to seasonal variations in wind conditions.|
|INDIVAT||The INDIVAT campaigns attempt to quantify CO2 flows at the ocean-atmosphere interface by studying the spatio-temporal variability of pCO2 distribution in the oceanic waters upper layers of the Indian Ocean.|
|INDOMIX||Through the analysis of temperature and salinity, the objective of the INDOMIX campaign is to study the mixing induced by the tide in the Indonesian seas.|
|JADE||The JADE campaigns aim to study ocean flows between the Pacific and the Indian Ocean and their variability in relation to the monsoon season through measurements of hydrology, geochemistry, bathymetry and current measurements.|
|KEOPS||KEOPS brings together a series of campaigns whose main objective is to understand the ocean's response to climate change by studying the seasonal bloom determinism of the Kerguelen Islands, in relation to the natural availability of iron. The work carried out during these campaigns aims in particular to study ocean circulation in real time.|
|KERFIX TRAPANTAR||The KERFIX TRAPANTAR campaigns provide a multi-annual non-coastal monitoring of parameters related to the carbon cycle in the Southern Ocean, in order to understand the processes that govern oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanges at the ocean-atmosphere interface, and to assess variations in carbon flows.|
|LATEX||The LATEX campaigns aim to study the influence of ocean dynamics by observing the eddies in the Lion Gulf and the heat transfers between the coastal zone and the ocean.|
|MAKER||The MAKER campaigns are linked to a hydrographic observation programme off the Kerguelen Islands. Their main objectives are to monitor the spatial and temporal variability of the polar front and to study the eddies of the region in order to highlight the structure of the meridian vertical circulation of the Southern Ocean.|
|MALINA||MALINA is an oceanographic campaign programmed to determine the spatial distribution of carbon stocks ( both living and detrimental organic) in the water column and sediments, and to study the processes and associated flows.|
|MATER ELISA||By focusing on the structure, origin and trajectory of eddies and the related ecosystems, the MATER ELISA campaigns aim to study the general circulation of water bodies in the Algerian basin.|
|MEDATLANTE||The MEDATLANTE campaigns study the physico-chemical evolution of a Mediterranean water lens, characterize it and study its behaviour near its origin point and in the near Atlantic Ocean.|
|MEDIPROD||The MEDIPROD campaigns focus on the plankton biology in order to determine the functioning of primary production, with a particular emphasis on the distribution and evolution of phyto and zooplanktonic biomasses according to hydrological conditions.|
|MELISSA||MELISSA campaigns are biochemistry campaigns that focus on seasonal limitations in the Mediterranean by studying the dissolution processes of atmospheric substances in the ocean, and the nutrient production processes (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, iron, etc.).|
|MEROU||The MEROU campaigns will investigate the summer monsoon regime of the Red Sea and Gulf of Adeb in order to assess the carbon sequestration and carbonate particle flows in the basin.|
|MINEPO||The MINEPO campaigns sought to define the future organic production of the equatorial upweeling and to describe the relationships that may exist between this production and the nitrite accumulation area south of the area of interest.|
|MINERVE||The MINERVE campaigns will investigate the spatio-temporal variability of the pCO2 distribution of the upper oceanic water layers in the Indian Ocean.|
|MOCAL||The MOCAL campaigns will examine the ocean's response to seasonal fluctuations in the atmosphere in intertropical areas by studying the meteorological parameters of oceanic structures in the Gulf of Guinea.|
|MOOGLI||The MOOGLI campaigns will examine the seasonal evolution of both the structure and functioning of the Lion Gulf ecosystem in order to establish an annual carbon and biogenic elements assessment.|
|MOORSPICE||MOORSPICE is a replica of the PANDORA campaign, the objective of which was to study both the circulation and water bodies of the south-west Pacific, particularly in the Solomon Sea, in order to build on previous knowledge in the fields of physics and biogeochemistry.|
|MOOSE-GE||The MOOSE campaigns are dependent on the National Observation Service (SNO) of the same name, whose objective is to monitor the long-term evolution of the Mediterranean Sea in a context of climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures. These campaigns are intended to help maintain the anchorages and carry out hydrological, biogeochemical and biological monitoring of the basin.|
|MOPRE||The MOPRE campaigns were aimed at studying the variability of the surface wind field and the dynamic and hydrological structures of the upper layers in order to better understand the physical mechanisms involved in the equatorial upwelling.|
|MOVE||Based on the use of anchored buoys, the main objective of the MOVE campaigns is to study the circulation of deep waters from the North Atlantic to the East of the West Indies.|
|NEADS||The NEADS campaigns are current measurement campaigns.|
|NUTRIGAS||The NUTRIGAS campaign is dedicated to studying the hydrological structure of the Bay of Biscay under the influence of the Loire and is aimed at preparing future studies of nitrogen and phosphorus flows in the water column.|
|OISO||The OISO campaigns are dependent on the National Observation Service (SNO) of the same name, whose objective is to study both the spatial and temporal variability of CO2 in the subantarctic, subtropical and southern oceans. These campaigns are intended to assess global carbon footprints in order to configure climate models and understand ocean acidification phenomena.|
|OLIPAC||In the OLIPAC campaign, the main objective is to estimate primary production by quantifying both biomasses and planktonic communities and by studying CO2 exchanges at the ocean-atmosphere interface.|
|OMEX GIGOVI||The OMEX GIGOVI campaign focuses on the observation of hydrography, nutritive salts and primary production.|
|OOMPH||The OOMPH campaigns aim to evaluate the emission and assimilation of organic trace elements in the high seas in order to understand part of the existing exchanges between the ocean and the atmosphere.|
|OUTPACE||The OUTPACE campaign was to obtain a representation of interactions between planktonic organisms and the cycles of biogenic elements at different scales (from process-oriented to Pacific Ocean-based studies).|
|OVIDE||Hydrology and geochemistry campaigns, the OVIDE campaigns, are designed to observe the circulation and characterize the water bodies of the North Atlantic sub-polar vortex in order to understand its dynamics, determine the fluctuations of the meridian cell and quantify the heat transport to the North Atlantic.|
|PACIPROD||The PACIPROD campaign aims to conduct a general study of pelagic production in two distinct areas of the Pacific benefiting from nutrient enrichment, namely the coastal upwelling areas of Peru and the Galapagos Islands.|
|PANDORA||PANDORA is a campaign that combines physical and geochemical measurements to study water circulation and water bodies in the southwest Pacific, particularly in the Solomon Sea.|
|PECHE||The PECHE project campaigns aim at a better understanding of the phenomena that control primary production and deep sea export flows.|
|PELAGOLION||The PELAGOLION campaigns will establish an assessment of the pelagic system of the Lion Gulf for each of the four major hydrological seasons.|
|PHYCAP||PHYCAP is a campaign whose objective is to carry out a study of physical structures in a state preceding the formation of the frontal zone of Cape Lopez.|
|PHYGAS||The PHYGAS campaigns intended to define the dynamic conditions governing the hydrological structure of the southern Breton continental shelf, with particular attention to the deep cold water layer and to study its evolution.|
|PIRAL||LThe PIRAL campaign focuses on improving the understanding of both physical and biological mechanisms at a reduced geographical scale.|
|PIRATA||The PIRATA campaigns depend of the National Observation Service (SNO) of the same name, whose objective is to carry out both oceanic and meteorological observations in the Tropical Atlantic. These campaigns enable the maintenance of the ocean-meteorological buoys and the monitoring of the hydrological, biogeochemical and biological aspects of the sea-basin.|
|POMME||During the POMME program campaigns, the objective is to study the mesoscale influence on the thermocline formation in the northeast Atlantic. Focusing on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water bodies, the aim is to understand the subduction of modal water and its impact on the carbon footprint.|
|PREFIL||PREFIL includes a series of campaigns aimed at highlighting the island effect by studying surface and vertical currents, nitrate distribution and hydrology.|
|PROLIG||The PROLIG campaigns study the Ligurian seafront in summer by studying new and regenerated production flows and the CO2 footprint in the frontal zone.|
|PROLIGO||The PROLIGO campaign focuses on studying both heterogeneous and autotrophic production in oligotrophic tropical waters by evaluating both primary and secondary production in waters not disturbed by the presence of islands.|
|PROSOPE||In order to validate bio-optical models for estimating primary production, the PROSOPE campaign investigated biogeochemical variability at small spatial and temporal scales by studying both the chemical and biological processes that regulate carbon flows.|
|RECIF||LThe RECIF campaigns were intended to improve knowledge of the intertropical Atlantic ocean circulation by focusing on the South Equatorial Counter-Current.|
|ROCKALL||Linked to the Marine Climate Change Program, the ROCKALL campaign was collecting standard CTD profile data to include nutrient, phytoplankton, salinity and chlorophyll samplings.|
|ROMANCAP||The ROMANCAP campaign is intended to study the intensity of the ocean source of particulate and gaseous compounds in the atmosphere and to confirm marine chemistry data on the chemical composition of suspended particulate matter in deep ocean waters.|
|ROMANCHE||The ROMANCHE campaigns will study the circulation of the deep and seafloor waters in fracture zones, by carrying out hydrological and geochemical measurements in the transit areas and thus highlighting possible mixing processes.|
|RREX||The RREX campaign aimed to better understand the role of an oceanic ridge (the Reykjanes Ridge) on both the dynamics and transformation of water bodies in the subpolar gyre, as well as on the mean meridian circulation (MOC).|
|SAMBA||Using subsurface drifting floats, SAMBA campaigns describe the movements of intermediate Antarctic water as it moves globally northward in the Brazilian Basin.|
|SATIR||The SATIR campaign is linked to the physical, chemical and biological processes studies of the well-marked thermal fronts on the western continental shelf of Brittany.|
|SEMANE||The SEMANE project campaign examined and documented the spatial and temporal variability and adjustment of Mediterranean waters in the Gulf of Cadiz.|
|SEMAPHORE||The SEMAPHORE campaign's primary objectives were to document the physical processes controlling ocean/atmosphere exchanges, including wave fields; to study the chemical and thermodynamic properties of the Azores current and associated secondary circulations; and finally, to study the spatial integration of fluxes.|
|SIBEX||The SIBEX campaign will examine the physico-chemical characteristics of the water bodies located between the Kerguelen archipelago and Pritz Bay.|
|SIDANE||SIDANE is a current measurement campaign.|
|SINODE||SINODE groups several studies on the dynamics of the western Indian Ocean border in relation to atmospheric surface circulation.|
|SOCLIM||The SOCLIM campaign's objective is to gain a better understanding of the processes that govern the functioning of the Southern Ocean, which has a proven role in climate variations. The aim of this campaign is to improve knowledge and quantification of key climate parameters such as thermal flows, and to describe the physical and biogeochemical processes of carbon sequestration.|
|SOFIA||SOFIA is a surface flux qualification campaign carried out by studying the marine atmospheric boundary layer and the existing relationships between structures on a medium scale.|
|STRASSE||STRASSE's campaign is to investigate the maximum salinity of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre by observing and understanding the hydrological cycle of the subtropical Atlantic Ocean. The aim is to carry out a detailed study of the ocean salinity of this area by analysing the water isotopomer cycle and the existing exchanges at the ocean-atmosphere interface.|
|SUBPOLAR||The SUBPOLAR campaigns examine both the distribution and circulation of water bodies in the sub-polar North Atlantic and the mechanisms that lead to their emergence.|
|SURATLANT||SURATLANT campaigns contribute to the monitoring of subpolar gypsum in the North Atlantic by collecting surface thermosalinographic data.|
|SURTROPAC||The SURTROPAC campaigns are a series of semi-annual hydrological and currentometric surveys of the western inter-tropical Pacific during the boreal monsoon season.|
|SUZAN||The SUZAN campaigns will assess the geostrophic flow from the surface to the bottom as part of a study on the fronts and fluctuations of Antarctic circulation.|
|SUZIL||The SUZIL campaign focuses on studying large-scale ocean circulation and characterizing the Crozet region from a hydrological, chemical, icthyological and sedimentary point of view.|
|TATU||The TATU campaign describes both the hydrological and physico-chemical characteristics of the oceanic waters of the Tuamotou Archipelago by measuring the current field and assessing the disturbances to the hydrological characteristics of the drift waters.|
|THON AUSTRALE||This campaign focused on the hydrological conditions of the Austral Islands region in order to characterize the thermal front associated with the tropical convergence and thus understand the circulation and distribution of tuna larvae and phytoplankton pigments|
|TIP||The TIP campaign investigates the mechanisms of thermal transport to the west of the area from Surabaya to Australia.|
|TOMOFRONT||TOMOFRONT is a campaign to establish an assessment of both carbon flows and vertical transfers in the frontal zone by studying the transformations of organic matter and secondary circulation in a geostrophic front.|
|TOPOGULF||The TOPOGULF campaigns are intended to improve knowledge of the general ocean circulation and its fluctuations in the vicinity of the mid-Atlantic ridge on a medium and large scale.|
|TOURBILLON||As part of a program to study the role of vortex phenomena, the TOURBILLON campaigns aimed to study the kinematic and energetic hydrology of a particular vortex.|
|TRACK||TRACK includes two physical oceanography campaigns aimed at quantifying the transport of the Antarctic circumpolar current and determining the exchange of water between the basins existing on either side of the Kerguelen Plateau.|
|TRAMANOR||TRAMANOR gathers a number of campaigns whose objective was to evaluate the transit times of water bodies in the Channel and the North Sea and to estimate the flows in the Pas-de-Calais region.|
|TRANSCIPREA||The TRANSCIPREA campaign carried out continuous remote sensing measurements of chlorophyll concentration to study primary production in the ocean.|
|TRANSEPICEA||Linked to the EPICEA campaigns, the TRANSEPICEA campaign enables the study of the importance of particles resuspension in the vicinity of the sea bottom, in the radioactive waste discharge area located in the North-East Atlantic.|
|TRIMADU||The TRIMADU campaign quantified the levels of artificial radionuclides in both surface and deep waters of the Atlantic Ocean.|
|UPSEN||The UPSEN campaign's objective is to describe the physical structure of coastal upwelling and its spatial and temporal evolution by estimating ocean vertical velocities and horizontal current divergences.|
|VACLAN||The VACLAN campaign is a seasonal study of thermohaline and biological characterization of water bodies in the northeast Atlantic.|
|VALITAR||The VALITAR campaign focuses on the relationships between water movements at a time when they are supposed to be particularly active.|
|VEMA||VEMA is a current measurement campaign.|
|VICOMED||Through various campaigns, VICOMED's main objective is to determine key circulation areas in the Mediterranean basin based on studies of the different parts of the water column and the populations of organisms that live there.|
|WestMedFlux||The WestMedFlux campaign will explore thermal fields within ocean-continental transition zones in the western Mediterranean.|
|WNA||WNA is a campaign to improve knowledge of circulation in the Labrador Sea and the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, with a particular focus on variations in deep and surface water trajectories.|
|ZEPHYR||The objective of the ZEPHYR campaign is to carry out a detailed study of a small area in order to measure as many parameters as possible involved in the ocean heat balance equation.|
ALGERIA is a campaign to assess the apparent biomass of demersal and pelagic resources on the Algerian continental shelf.
By acquiring acoustic data, the AURA campaigns aimed to study the distribution and abundance of pelagic resources in the Bay of Biscay.
The objective of the BAHIA campaigns was to identify and assess the exploitable resources of small pelagics within the exclusive economic zone of the States of Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro by echo-integration and pelagic trawling for the identification of species.
The objective of the CEE campaigns was to assess coastal pelagic fish resources in areas within the exclusive economic zones of different countries in Equatorial Africa.
The CGFS trawling campaigns enable the collection of the data needed to assess marine resources in the Channel and also to monitor ecosystems within the framework of the MSFD (Marine Strategy Framework Directive).
ECHOBAL gathers a series of campaigns to assess the abundance and spatial distribution of pelagic and semi-pelagic fish on the continental shelf of equatorial Africa.
The ECHOPROC campaign is a campaign to assess the coastal pelagic fish stock on the Senegalese continental shelf and in neighbouring countries, with the aim of studying the distribution and assessment of fish populations.
The ECHOTRI campaign has been used to evaluate the deep-sea resources in Martinique and the Saint-Barthélemy bank, but also to ensure the methodological development of hydroacoustic measurements.
The ECHOVEN campaigns are echo sounding prospecting campaigns of the eastern continental shelf of Venezuela, the objective of which is to specify the distribution of the fishery resources present, and to assess their abundance and composition.
EIGAS is a group of campaigns including studies on the macro-distribution and relative abundance of pelagic resources by echo-integration aimed at improving knowledge of the fishery resources of the Bay of Biscay.
The objective of the ERHAPS campaigns was to acquire data for the estimation of annual abundance indicators of the most commercially important species as part of a fisheries resources inventory.
The EVHOE program includes a series of campaigns that identify the resource populations of the Bay of Biscay and the Celtic Sea. The objective is to develop time series of abundance indicators to assess stocks and study species' spatial use strategies.
GUINEE is a campaign to assess the abundance and distribution of pelagic and semi-pelagic fish populations on the continental shelves of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Guinea Bissau by acoustic prospection, and by exploratory fishing for identification purposes.
The HEID campaigns aim to study both the characteristics emitted by the echoes of schools of fish and the behaviour of the fish during the passage of the boat.
By providing time series of abundance indicators for the main commercial species in the North Sea and the Eastern Channel, IBTS campaigns facilitate the sustainable management of fisheries resources in an ecosystembased approach.
The IYFS campaigns were aimed at directly assessing the recruitment of species mainly fished in the North Sea.
The OLMAC campaign aimed to evaluate the mackerel and chincard spawning stock by studying various parameters: estimation of the number of eggs emitted, female fertility rates, structure and sex ratio of spawning concentrations.
PADAV is a stock assessment campaign for Pandalus borealis shrimp stocks.
The PEL campaigns enabled the resources to be evaluated by characterising the pelagic system of the Bay of Biscay.
The PELACUS campaigns allow the estimation of pelagic fish abundance by echo-integration in southern European coastal waters.
The objective of the PELGAS campaigns is to evaluate the anchovy and sardine biomass of the Bay of Biscay by acoustic and pelagic trawling, but also to characterise the hydro-biological environment of the habitats.
PELLION is a campaign to evaluate fishery resources (in particular Sardine, Anchovy and Mackerel) off the French coasts of the Mediterranean by echo-integration.
PELMED brings together a series of campaigns to assess Anchovy stocks in the Gulf of Valencia and the southern Ligurian Sea.
The PROCELT campaign aimed to assess benthic and demersal resources in the Celtic Sea in order to study the possibilities of extending traditional fishing grounds.
The campaigns to study the Seychelles' marine resources, REVES, have assessed both the abundance of pelagic fish on the shelf by echo-integration and identification fishing, as well as the abundance and distribution of demersal fish.
The TALUS campaign aims to estimate the impacts of fishing on deepwater fish stocks by estimating various parameters: biomass, density, specific composition, diversity of the fish population, etc.
The AMOCINT campaign aims to reconstruct the variability of thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic during interglacial periods.
APSARA is a paleoclimatic research campaign of the high southern latitudes for the last 150,000 years in relation to climate change in the Northern Hemisphere.
The CADO campaign is a multidisciplinary campaign that has brought together paleoclimatic studies and studies on water-sediment column processes. The main objective of this campaign was to study natural climate variability in order to understand the changes currently observed and thus estimate the share due to human influence, and predict future climate change.
IMAGES is a series of campaigns whose objective is to trace the monsoons' evolution and thus the changes in ocean circulation during the past by coring the seabed in the south of the Indonesian archipelago.
The MONOPOL campaign aims to collect and analyse sedimentary series from the Bay of Bengal and Maldives, in order to reconstruct the past variability of the Indian monsoon and its sensitivity to different types of forcing, from the Upper Holocene.
MOZAPHARE is a paleo-oceanographic campaign conducted in the south-western Indian Ocean whose objective is to highlight the existing relationships between climate change in East Africa and the ocean circulation of the last million years.
NAUSICAA is a campaign to study paleocirculations at the Indo-Atlantic Ocean connection that aims to define the paleo-productivity of the Benguela upwelling system.
NOE is a campaign to reconstruct the paleohydrology of the eastern Mediterranean, focusing on the variations of the Nile and the implications for the equatorial rainfall regime.
Conducted in the Indian Ocean, the OSIRIS campaign aimed to study the main current isotopic parameters and to reconstruct the paleoclimatology and paleo-oceanography of the area of interest since the end of the Tertiary by means of micro-paleontological and classical sedimentological analysis.
The objectives of the PACHIDERME campaign were to collect high sedimentation rate marine sediment series to study past changes in the environment, climate and ocean in the southeast Pacific, along the Chilean margin.
Through sediment coring, the PALEOCINAT campaign aimed to allow the reconstruction of surface and deep circulation changes in the North Atlantic over the past 250,000 years based on micro-paleontological, sedimentological and isotopic analyses.
The main objective of the PECTEN campaign was to reconstruct past climate variations at different time scales in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean.
The PICABIA campaign aimed to reconstruct climate variability over several climate cycles (glacial and interglacial) at different time scales in the North-East Atlantic area and to estimate climate change in the tropical area in conjunction with wind transport and the upwelling system.
The PRIMAROSA program gathers a set of campaigns aimed at reconstructing the palaeoclimatic variability of the Quaternary (450,000 years ago) and the ocean/continent relationships.
RETRO is a campaign whose objective is to reconstruct the variations in the Atlantic meridian circulation during the last glacial period, the last deglaciation and the Holocene.
The objective of the VANIL campaign was to obtain a continuous sedimentary record of the Nile Basin's history over the past 500,000 years in order to reconstruct an accurate chronostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental framework of the settling of the deposits.
WEPAMA is a paleo-oceanography campaign whose objectives include studying the evolution of heat transfers from the equator to mid- and high latitudes via the main currents of the western Pacific, and studying the formation and variations of deep intermediate waters in the western Pacific and marginal seas in response to global climate change in ocean circulation and climate.