Recurring in-situ measurements are collected by observation services that can be grouped into networks or by laboratories performing repetitive measurements. These observation networks are part of a long-term approach whose main objective is to acquire relevant and systematic data on a multitude of parameters. There are different types of services:
The National Institute of Sciences of the Universe (INSU),CNRS, is responsible for defining and coordinating the policy of the means of observation within the research facility of the CNRS and Observatories of Sciences of the Universe (OSU) for astronomical and terrestrial systems.
In this capacity, INSU coordinates ocean observing services aimed at collecting long-term data in order to produce time series of various ocean variables useful for variability studies. With a goal of structuring and steering, the SNO are grouped by INSU in four national actions for observation (ANO): "Astrophysical Astronomy", "Ocean Atmosphere", "Surfaces and Continental Interfaces" and "Earth Solid ". The ocean-related SNOs presented as part of the Odatis cluster are grouped together in the "Ocean Atmosphere" and "Continental Surfaces and Interfaces" ANOs. In order to ensure the quality, these services are regularly appraised.
List of SNO
- ANO « Ocean atmosphere » :
- CORAIL - Observation des récifs coralliens de Polynésie française
- CTOH - Center for tomographic studies of the ocean and hydrosphere
- MEMO – Mammifères échantillonneurs du milieu océanique
- MOOSE - Mediterranean ocean observing system on environment
- OISO / CARAUS– Océan Indien – service d’observation / Carbon Austral
- PIRATA – Pilot research moored array in the tropical Atlantic
- SIROCCO - Simulation réaliste sur l'environnement côtier
- SOMLIT – Service d’observation en milieu littoral
- SONEL – Système d’observation du niveau des eaux littorales
- SSS – Service d’observation de la salinité des océans – Sea surface salinity
- ANO « Continental Surfaces and Interfaces » :
In order to be able to carry out their research activity, certain public institutions, such as IFREMER or the National Museum of Natural History (MNHN), rely on observation and / or surveillance systems that enable the acquisition and collection of data.
SO of IFREMER - French Institute for Research and Exploitation of the Sea :
The observation and monitoring services of IFREMER are devices that aim to meet the needs for knowledge or monitoring of environmental monitoring in the framework of European directives, such as the Water Framework Directive (WFD) or the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The list of SOs below only lists the services and observation networks that are of interest for the ODATIS cluster, so the list is not exhaustive :
- MYTILOBS - Réseau d'observation conchylicole (Mytilus edulis)
- RECOPESCA - Réseau de mesure de l'activité de pêche spatialisé et de données environnementales à usage scientifique
- REPHY - Réseau d'observation et de surveillance du phytoplancton et de l'hydrologie
- REPHYTOX - Réseau de surveillance des phycotoxines dans les organismes marins
- REMI - Réseau de contrôle microbiologique des coquillages dans les zones de production
- REPAMO - Réseau pathologie des mollusques
- RESCO II - Réseau d'observation conchylicole
- ROCCH - Réseau d'observation et de surveillance de la contamination chimique
In addition to these observation services, the evaluation of the fishery resources is provided by IFREMER through various programs and observation campaigns at sea. :
- Campagnes SIH - Campagnes scientifiques halieutiques
- OBSMER - Observation en mer, échantillonnage des captures à bord des navires de pêche
SO of MNHN - National Museum of Natural History :
In order to respond to its mission to establish a national inventory of natural heritage (INPN) for the entire national terrestrial, fluvial and marine territory, the MNHN initiated in 2003 a standardized system for the return of data necessary for expertise. , the development of conservation strategies and the dissemination of information on the French natural heritage. To ensure the dissemination of data at the national level, INPN is associated in 2012 with the Information System on Nature and Landscapes (SINP).:
- SINP - Système d'information sur la nature et les paysages
SO of GIS - Groupings of scientific interest :
GIS are structures resulting from partnerships between different bodies (research and higher education organizations, institutes, ministries, public institutions, etc.) through collaboration agreements. They aim to federate means (financial, human, material, etc.) in order to carry out research within the framework of a defined specific theme. For this purpose, the GIS are able to set up observation systems enabling them to acquire and collect data.
> Cas du GOPS - Grand observatoire de l'environnement et de la biodiversité terrestre et marine du Pacifique Sud
Au nombre de 17 lors de sa création en 2011 et évoluant en fonction des conventions, le GOPS compte, en 2016, 11 organismes collaborateurs : L'institut de recherche pour le développement - IRD, le centre national pour la recherche scientifique - CNRS, l'université Pierre et Marie Curie - UPMC, l'université de Nouvelle-Calédonie - UNC, l'université de Polynésie française - UPF, l'université Paul Sabatier-Toulouse - UPS III, l'Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer - IFREMER, le muséum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN, l'institut de physique du globe de Paris - IPGP, l'institut agronomique calédonien - IAC, ainsi que l'institut Louis Malardé - ILM.
- ReefTemps - Réseau de station côtières du Pacifique sud-ouest
SO of UNESCO - United nations educational, scientific and cultural organization :
Global monitoring and observation of the ocean and climate requires broad international cooperation. With the aim of providing means of observation and data management to decision-makers and those responsible for the management of the marine environment and climate, ocean and climate observing systems have been created. Implemented by a technical commission made up of scientific experts within UNESCO, these information systems enable the development of adaptation and mitigation strategies for the impact of climate change and provide information and data to governments, the general public and the scientific community.
The observation networks group together a set of similar devices such as measurement stations, laboratories or observatories, set up with the aim of monitoring the evolution of ecosystems, whether terrestrial or marine, on the long term. Bringing together a multitude of organizations of different natures, these observation networks can be associated with different themes: monitoring changes in the coastline or sea level, sharing data, etc.
- CIRCLE - Contrôle, innovation et recherche en cartographie laser de l'environnement
- COAST HF - Coastal ocean observing system - High frequency
- OBLIC - Observatoire du littoral de Nouvelle-Calédonie
- REBENT - Réseau benthique
- REFMAR - Réseau de référence des observations marégraphiques
- RESOMAR - Réseau des stations et observatoire marins
- RONIM - Réseau d'observation du niveau de la mer
- ROSAME - Réseau d'observation Sub-Antarctique et Antarctique du niveau de la mer
In 2011, AllEnvi's transversal group "Research Infrastructure" launched a SOERE labeling procedure. According to the definition of this labeling group, "a SOERE is a system organized into a network composed of a set of elementary observation or experimentation devices," nodes "of the device, bearing on the same object or sharing observable parameters. and measurable common to all network sites. The acquisition of these parameters, their measurement, the processing and the archiving of the data are carried out in a secure, perennial and continuous way, starting from each "node". For users, whether or not members of the scientific community, these networks facilitate access to all available data.
These SOEREs should make it possible to constitute a body of data that is interdisciplinary by coupling, as much as possible, biophysical, biological and socio-economic data allowing the understanding of the processes existing within the ecosystems.
List of SOERE
- CTD-O2– Coriolis, temps différé d’observation océanographique
- MOOSE- Mediterranean ocean observing system on environment
Services en appui à l'acquisition et à la production de données : Service d'observation labellisé SOMLIT
- SONEL- Système d'observation du niveau des eaux littorales
Services en appui à l'acquisition et à la production de données : Service d'observation labellisé DYNALIT
The first national roadmap for research infrastructures was drawn up in 2008 at the initiative of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research. Updated every four years, this roadmap is a tool for strategic management of major research infrastructures and large instruments in order to put them at the service of research. In 2016, this roadmap presents 95 research infrastructures of very varied forms and contents (large-scale instruments located at specific sites such as the E-ELT telescope, fleets, instrumented site networks, databases or still cohorts of scientific experts) differentiated according to 4 types:
- international organizations (IOs): organizations founded on the basis of an inter-governmental convention and/or an inter-agency agreement whose financial protocol describes, in particular, the objectives of the organization, the conditions of accession, operating organs, etc;
- very large Research Infrastructures (TGIR): TGIRs are major instruments of industrial collaboration and innovation networks. Under the scientific responsibility of the research operators, TGIRs are national or are the subject of European and international partnerships;
- research infrastructures (IR): IRs are identified and implemented by research operators, who may be represented by an Alliance or by public institutions according to their specific missions;
- projects: the projects constitute transitional statutes for infrastructures that already enjoy a certain existence in the French research landscape, but which does not have a level of maturation sufficiently high compared to the other three previous statutes.
- ECORD/IODP - European consortium for ocean drillling research / International ocean discovery program
- EMBRC-FR - European marine biological infrastructure cluster - France
- EMSO - France - European multidisciplinary seafloor and water column observatory - France
- EURO-ARGO - European contribution to Argo program
- I-Li-CO - Infrastructure littorale et côtière